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History of cummins engine

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Miller helped beautify the company's hometown, Columbus, Indiana, with the creation of a unique endowment that paid the architect's fees for many public buildings. The fund helped draw some of the United States's finest architects to the Midwest town. In , the Business Enterprise Trust recognized Miller's magnanimity and philanthropy when it awarded him its Lifetime Achievement Award.

Miller's sense of justice and scholarly background helped him at times decide against prevailing business trends as well. For example, when asked why Cummins was resisting pressure to diversify, Miller told Forbes, "This may be counter to trends, but we believe that by diversifying you are liable to lose confidence in the value of a good product.

The company doubled its sales in five years and continued to double sales every five years into the s. Cummins' best-selling engine was a 2,pound diesel for trucks of 13 tons or more. In order to maintain the high demand for Cummins engines, the company had to stay ahead of the competition, which soon included Mack Trucks, Caterpillar, and GM's Detroit Diesel. In the company unveiled a turbo-diesel which used exhaust gases to turn a gas turbine supercharger.

The device increased the horsepower of each Cummins engine by 50 percent without raising fuel consumption. That year Cummins demonstrated the engine at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, where it malfunctioned.

Miller was nonplussed. Cummins stayed way ahead of its competition in the s by securing up to 60 percent of the heavy truck market in North America. Its in-line six-cylinder engines were renowned for their power and longevity. Cummins distributors, who handled nothing but Cummins engines and parts, were regarded as highly reputable because of their expertise with the single product line. Although it faced competition from Caterpillar and Euclid, Cummins also began selling engines for off-road construction.

However, the heavy truck market appeared to be saturated by To expand into alternative markets Cummins crafted a new line of V-6 and V-8 engines, based on an "oversquare" gasoline engine design.

Since the diameter of the cylinder in oversquare engines is greater than the piston stroke, the engines produce more power at high speeds. Diesel engines had been long-stroke, but Cummins' engineers found the right combination of fuel and air to inject into the combustion chamber and make their engines workable. The new engines, the Vim, a V-6 model with horsepower, the Vine, a V-8 with horsepower, and the Val, a V-6 with horsepower, represented the first time Cummins attempted to penetrate the lighter truck market.

At that time, 44 percent of trucks 13 tons and over had diesel engines, but fewer than 1 percent of the trucks from eight to 13 tons were diesel-powered. With heavier trucks representing just six percent of the market, and the lighter trucks 22 percent, management concluded that manufacturing smaller engines would raise revenues. But the lighter truck market proved difficult to enter. In the early s Cummins began a slow decline. Sales and profits fluctuated. A new line of engines with more than horsepower, introduced by the company in , failed to gain a dominant market share for more than two years.

Management was criticized for being behind in both product development and market share. Part of the problem was Cummins' policy of diversification. Beginning in the late s Cummins started acquiring an interest in companies that produced diesel-related products. By the late s it had become genuinely diversified, purchasing a ski manufacturer, a bank, and even an Irish cattle feeding outfit.

Management had decided to make these acquisitions due to the slow growth of the diesel market. While Cummins' sales averaged 15 percent annual growth, the diesel market was projected to expand at half that rate. By Cummins' share of the crucial heavy-truck market had slipped to less than 45 percent. Earnings were off 78 percent.

Vigorous sales continued over the next few years, but earnings were erratic. Miller's hand-picked young successor, Henry Schacht, who joined the company after graduating from Harvard Business School and assumed the presidency just two years later, blamed surprisingly strong demand for the thin margins.

Instead of preparing for an increased truck demand, Cummins had diverted resources to its non-diesel holdings. To catch up to the competition, Cummins operated its factories 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and paid a large amount in overtime wages. A two-month long strike only exacerbated the company's difficulties. Demand exceeded supply, and customers went elsewhere. There was criticism that Cummins met the demands of only its biggest customers and that smaller consumers were forced to buy from the competition.

Cummins' share of the large truck market reached a low point of less than 40 percent in the early s. The company elected to sell its other holdings and concentrate on meeting the unexpectedly high diesel demand. The main challenge was to devise a marketing strategy for engines that remained about five per cent more expensive than the competition's.

The company refused to downgrade its product line. Management believed that the most significant problem for truckers who drove their vehicles , miles and more a year was downtime. So the company's response to its slipping market share was to make its engines more powerful, which in turn made them more reliable.

In this way Cummins held on to its largest customers. Furthermore, the company expanded its overseas operations. It had a worldwide network of 3, service outlets, and a computerized analysis of 50, miles of major highways, allowing it to match the best engine to the customer's requirements.

Its reputation helped it gain access to new markets. By the mids, 25 percent of the company's revenues came from overseas, and additional profits were being made in the agriculture, construction, and marine enterprises for which Cummins was designing extra-large engines of 1, horsepower. Then Cummins made an apparent mistake and introduced a line of horsepower engines. This was 50 percent more power than a truck needed to haul a loaded rig at 65 mph on a level highway.

Cummins was marketing power in its engines, but the problem was the new 55 mile-per-hour speed limit. The company confronted this issue with an advertising campaign that stressed "reserve power. Furthermore, constant speed and less shifting would actually increase fuel efficiency.

The new engines didn't sell very well at first, as the truck market in slumped 40 percent. The following year, however, the market rebounded, and Cummins took the lion's share. Cummins benefitted from the erratic enforcement of the 55 mph speed limit. Furthermore, the company outperformed its competitors by introducing a turbo-charged, slower-running version of its large-block engine, offering five percent better economy.

Nonetheless, management was increasingly concerned about the volatile truck market. While automating company plants in order to stay competitive within the truck engine industry, Cummins increased its profit from non-highway engines until they accounted for nearly 25 percent of revenues. This stabilized the company, for the demand for agricultural and construction equipment ran in cycles that were unrelated to the demand for truck engines.

Cummins also established plants in Scotland and England to penetrate the European market while avoiding European tariffs. It faced new rivals, such as Renault in France and Iveco in Italy, which placed only their own engines in trucks they were manufacturing. But Cummins, which had faced a similar obstacle in the s, was undeterred. New laws allowing trucks of up to 38, pounds on European highways, in addition to the escalating costs of fuel, persuaded the Cummins management that Europe was the new market for Cummins' diesel engines.

For Cummins, the European market grew slowly but steadily. In the meantime, Cummins faced a Japanese incursion on the domestic market.

These new competitors sought to establish a foothold in the United States by offering their diesel engines at 10 percent to 40 percent below Cummins' prices. Cummins met the challenge with his own price cuts, a strategy that helped prevent the new rivals from capturing a significant share of the market.

Expanding into South America, Cummins furthers its manufacturing strategy of developing local suppliers across multiple continents. This approach would lead to dynamic growth around the world. A partnership with Komatsu marks Cummins' entry into East Asia.

Spearheaded by bulldozer production, much of Komatsu's growth coincides with Japan's post-war reconstruction effort. To bring the emerging trend of turbocharging in-house and expand its business, Cummins purchases Holset, a world-class producer of turbomachinery based in England.

In more recent years, the company would become known as Cummins Turbo Technologies. Henry Schacht was the company's CEO at the time. Formerly an office furniture factory, Cummins acquires a massive , square-foot facility in Jamestown, New York USA , to spark new levels of production.

Favoring a team-based work system over the single task, line-worker approach used in other plants, Jamestown produces about 65 NH engines per day initially. In recent years, that number has increased to around Today, all U. To increase its medium-duty midrange product offerings, Cummins partners with J. Known as the Consolidated Diesel Company, the joint venture capitalizes on a shared-risk development and manufacturing strategy that is used by Cummins to this day.

The purchase of Holset in the early s leads to a broader range of Cummins product offerings in the following decades. Especially popular with engineers in the s, turbocharging improves power output and fuel economy, while reducing emissions—all within the same engine displacement.

Cummins continues to expand its global manufacturing reach with an operation in Mexico capable of producing 25 engines per day. The latter is a technical center dedicated to reconditioning and remanufacturing parts for the aftermarket. In , Cummins is one of the first American companies to pursue business in China. Six years later, Cummins continues its track record of creating opportunities in new markets when it signs a license agreement for the NH, K and KV engines with the China Technical Import Corporation.

With the goal of becoming the world leader in design and manufacturing of power generation equipment, Cummins purchases a 63 percent share of the Onan Corporation. The remainder is acquired in , making it a fully owned subsidiary for power systems. Close ties with the Kirloskar family lead to an additional 25 percent share purchase of Kirloskar-Cummins Ltd.

Now known as Cummins India Ltd. Sixteen years after it first became part of the Dodge lineup of pickup trucks, Cummins builds its one millionth Ram engine. The milestone is a testament to a partnership built on power, toughness and dependability. Being a global company means more than having a few scattered locations around the world. It means an advanced network of operations capable of increasing innovation and growing year-over-year sales.

Launched in February, Cummins adds Electrified Power to its lineup of business segments. The move solidifies the company's commitment to electrification and its long-term possibilities. Diesel power makes its debut at the legendary Indianapolis Rather than predicting victory, Clessie Cummins states that the racecar is fuel-efficient enough to run the entire race without a single pit stop.

After consuming only 31 gallons, No. Loaded with the No. In another barnstorming display, Clessie Cummins completes 14, nonstop miles around the Indianapolis Motor Speedway with a Model H-powered Indiana truck. The seat test bus reaches speeds of up to 65 miles per hour.

The photo is an advertisement from While other companies shift away from the four-stroke engine in favor of the two-stroke, Clessie Cummins puts both engines to the test in the Indianapolis Powered by twin horsepower Model H-6 engines, the ton U.

Antarctic Service Snow Cruiser is the first ever diesel-electric wheeled vehicle. In addition to an onboard lab and rooftop aircraft carrier, the cruiser comes with retractable wheels and a long overhang for crossing crevasses. In , the Cummins ticker symbol would appear on the New York Stock Exchange for the first time as pictured. After achieving a mile per hour track record, the Cummins Diesel No.

On pace with race leaders, the horsepower JBS diesel racer was forced to retire at the mile mark due to damage. The exact cause became the subject of race lore. Beginning with the purchase of the Seymour Woolen Mills later to become Fleetguard Filtration , Cummins renews its focus on avoiding supply interruptions and controlling costs. In the words of J. Why don't we make them ourselves?

Kirloskar, the leader of a diesel engine company in India. Known as Kirloskar-Cummins Ltd. The approach is highly sustainable due to how much energy, material and labor is saved by reconditioning an existing diesel engine. With a focus on driving results and accountability, Cummins organizes into four businesses. This decision to drive individual business unit performance would be a significant step towards Cummins' future success. Equipped with a Holset-turbocharged Cosworth engine and March chassis, Unser begins the race in 20th place and finishes with his fourth victory at the speedway.

The decision to install the 5. Fighting to preserve Cummins' identity as an independent engine manufacturer, the Miller family proposes a novel solution to the hostile business environment and challenging economy.

If not for the family's business acumen and financial support, Cummins would likely not be what it is today. Irwin Miller and his sister, Clementine Miller Tangeman both back right , led the buyback efforts. The Tata Cummins joint venture is the first manufacturing plant in India to build the modern Euro-1 engine.

The relationship also gives Cummins an opportunity to supply ultra-clean compressed natural gas engines for Tata in Delhi, India, and throughout the region. In an age of global operational expansion for the company, Cummins opens Holset turbocharger plants in Dewas, India, and Wuxi, China. Today, while engines remain our core business, we are more than an engine company, and our new name reflects our continuing diversification.

The primary applications would be commercial trucks, pickups, multipurpose vehicles and SUVs. In , "Red, Black and Global" is published to document the transformation that took place from Bright, open and inviting, the architecturally forward space showcases the impact of inspired design.

February 6, , Cummins marks its year anniversary by turning challenges into opportunities. Join us as we celebrate around the globe by following Cummins on social media. The diverse operations in this location function as many small plants under the same roof, defining the site as one of the most complex Cummins has around the world. This move gave Power Generation the most cost effective footprint to continue to position the company as a key global player in providing diversified solutions for our customers.

The combination of the Power Generation and High Horsepower engine markets formed the Power Systems operating segment in The merger brought the two together due to their many common goals, such as product requirements and sales and service needs. Demonstrating its long history of powering the recreational vehicle RV market, Cummins shipped its one millionth RV generator set in October of Early innovations from Onan like Vaccu Flo technology helped position Cummins as an important power provider to the RV market.

Cummins launches its most advanced and broadest high horsepower engine family with the cylinder QSK60 followed by the cylinder QSK Developments from these two engine designs lead the way for Cummins to become one of the most successful high-speed, high horsepower engine manufacturers for applications in mining, rail, power generation, oil and gas and marine industries. A brand is far more than a logo.

It is who we are, what we believe and tells the story of our past and future. Our brand identity has evolved over the past century, yet our commitment to customers stays the same.

We power the future with innovative and dependable products that improve people's lives. Cummins is synonymous with integrity, diversity and inclusion, teamwork, excellence and caring for others. These values are deeply rooted in our history, our culture and the people we employ around the world. Values are the backbone of our company. We stand tall because of them — even when standing for what is right comes at a cost.

Cummins' history is filled with extraordinary leaders. Over the last century, all Cummins leaders have been tenured employees — a testament to our philosophy to hire, retain and develop employees to reach their full potential. All of our leaders believe in and live out our values every day. They have led the company in turning challenges into opportunities and have been key to our success for the last years. We know they will continue to challenge the impossible for the next Throughout our history, Cummins has delivered innovation to bring customers the right solution at the right time.

It is this history of innovation and dependability that has led us to success. Now, years later, we continue to embrace challenges as opportunities. We promise to deliver technologies that meet the diverse needs of our customers by providing a broad portfolio of power solutions across the many markets we serve. The information you are looking for is on cummins. Breadcrumb Home Years of Cummins. Cummins' trademark C. Old gold and black adopted as trademark.

Diesel Workers Union is established. Cummins Foundation breaks new ground. A force for equal rights. Leading the charge for U. Joseph named first African American VP. Adrienne Savage named first female Vice President. Cummins shows no tolerance for apartheid. Cummins' Sustainability Report puts words into action. Re-energizing the values. Renewing the mission. Launch of Cummins Powers Women.

Vision, Mission and Values codified. Cummins unveils first comprehensive sustainability plan. Clessie Cummins is named company president. William G. Irwin is elected board Chairman. Irwin Miller is named president.

Tim Solso named CEO. Tom Linebarger becomes CEO. Don Tull assumes role of President. Henry Schacht named CEO. Jim Henderson named CEO. The Hvid era. Model U begins production.

Introduction of the single disc fuel system. Natural gas engines enter the assembly line. Cummins Technical Center opens the door to innovation.

QSK95 kicks off production. Production of the Model F begins. Model K begins its run. H start of production. Small Vee production begins at Darlington Engine Plant. Formation of Cummins Electronics Company. CENSE electronics introduced. ISX15 begins its run. EPA consent decree. First to market with the Variable Geometry Turbine. Cummins Emission Solutions established.

Joining forces with Westport Innovations. Advancing into electrification. Creating the 10 mile per gallon SuperTruck. ISG12 production starts. Becoming a global powertrain integration leader. Mobile Innovation. Diesel-Electric Hybrid Heavy Truck. Quiet Power. Purchase of Cerealine Building. Challenging the impossible, Cummins is officially founded. A new home on Fifth and Wilson Streets. The Model U tour commences. The first ever U. Cummins turns its first ever profit.

Shotts plant opens up a world of possibilities. Motores Cummins Diesel de Brasil Ltda is established. Forging an alliance with Komatsu. Acquisition of Holset Engineering Company Ltd. Jamestown Engine Plant ramps up NH production.

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Yet to marshal history and send it into battle merely to serve the needs of the present is misuse and abuse. History should never be a weapon at the heart of culture wars.

Sadly, once again, it is: clumsily wielded by those who deliberately seek to impose a clear ideological agenda.

History is becoming the handmaiden of identity politics and self-flagellation. This only promotes poor, one-dimensional understandings of the past and continually diminishes the utility of the field. History stands at a crossroads; it must refuse to follow the trend of the times. Any thoroughly researched and well-argued study of any aspect of the past counts, for me, as history. If things are better today in History departments, it is because the disciplinary frontiers have been redrawn.

But we still have our borders, not all of which are imposed by our institutions or funding authorities. How many History departments would exclude an otherwise excellent candidate only because her sources are mostly literary? A great many, I dare say, including my own. Political, economic and social history are, without question, essential; so is the history of Europe and America.

But they are not the alpha and the omega of History as a discipline. We still do not pay enough attention to histories of ideas, of the arts, of medicine, of philosophy, of entertainment, of technology, whether in Europe or America or elsewhere. Nor do we feel particularly comfortable about biographical approaches to history. None of these potentially enriching themes can be addressed unless we jettison our atavistic equation of the archive with a collection of yellowing reams of paper.

Though almost 60 years have passed since E. Carr first posed the question, undergraduates still continue to find much to unpack in his answers. But it is a curious fact that What is History?

By contrast, Carr saw history as fundamentally a problem-solving discipline. Not only should historians divest themselves of the illusion that they could somehow stand outside the world in which they live, he argued.

They should in fact embrace the fact that the study of the past could be oriented to the needs of the present. One can immediately see the appeal of such an argument today. Rather, I sense that the enduring fascination with Carr reflects something much more fundamental in how we view the relationship between past and present.

Each historian will view the relationship between past and present differently. One way to attempt to answer this question is to ask ourselves what and who are histories for? Such histories might take the form of origin stories, of relatively linear and perhaps teleological accounts — how did we come to organise our societies and political systems in the ways that we have now, for instance — or, as the apocryphal saying goes, a series of lessons to learn from in order to avoid the ignominy of repetition.

Such an understanding of history conceals within itself a more exciting and fraught — though not necessarily antithetical — possibility. With political power in congress being a key flash-point between slave and free states The Fugitive Slave Act of required the states to cooperate with slave owners when attempting to recover escaped slaves, which outraged Northerners. Formerly, an escaped slave that reached a non-slave state was presumed to have attained sanctuary and freedom under the Missouri Compromise.

The Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that free blacks were not citizens of the United States; the decision enraged all major political forces except for southern states.

The Republicans worried the decision could be used to expand slavery throughout all states and territories. With senator Abraham Lincoln leading criticism of the ruling, the stage was set for the presidential election. After Abraham Lincoln won the election , seven Southern states seceded from the union and set up a newly formed sovereign state, the Confederate States of America Confederacy , on February 8, It attacked Fort Sumter , a U. Army fort in South Carolina, thus igniting the war.

When Lincoln called for troops to suppress the Confederacy in April , four more states seceded and joined the Confederacy. A few of the northernmost " slave states " did not secede and became known as the border states ; these were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. During the war, the northwestern portion of Virginia seceded from the Confederacy.

In response, Lincoln called on the states to send troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union," which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. The two armies had their first major clash at the First Battle of Bull Run , which proved to both sides that the war would be much longer and bloodier than originally anticipated. In the western theater , the Union Army was relatively successful, with major battles, such as Perryville and Shiloh along with Union Navy gunboat dominance of navigable rivers producing strategic Union victories and destroying major Confederate operations.

Warfare in the eastern theater began poorly for the Union. General George B. The main action was Union success in controlling the border states, with Confederates largely driven out of border states. The autumn Confederate retreat at the Battle of Antietam led to Lincoln's warning he would issue an Emancipation Proclamation in January if the states did not return. Making slavery a central war goal energized Republicans in the North, as well as their enemies, the anti-war Copperhead Democrats and ended the chance of British and French intervention.

Lee's smaller Army of Northern Virginia won battles in late and Spring , but he pushed too hard and ignored the Union threat in the west. Lee invaded Pennsylvania in search of supplies and to cause war-weariness in the North. In perhaps the turning point of the war , Lee's army was badly beaten by the Army of the Potomac at the July Battle of Gettysburg and barely made it back to Virginia.

Grant gained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg , thereby splitting the Confederacy. In , Union General William Tecumseh Sherman marched south from Chattanooga to capture Atlanta , a decisive victory that ended war jitters among Republicans in the North and helped Lincoln win re-election. On the homefront, industrial expansion in the North expanded dramatically, using its extensive railroad service, and moving industrial workers into munitions factories.

Foreign trade increased, with the United States providing both food and cotton to Britain, and Britain sending in manufactured products and thousands of volunteers for the Union Army plus a few to the Confederate army. The British operated blockade runners bringing in food, luxury items and munitions to the Confederacy, bringing out tobacco and cotton. The Union blockade increasingly shut down Confederate ports, and by late the blockade runners were usually captured before they could make more than a handful of runs.

The last two years of the war were bloody for both sides, with Sherman marching almost unopposed through southern states, burning cities, destroying plantations, ruining railroads and bridges, but avoiding civilian casualties. Sherman demonstrated that the South was unable to resist a Union invasion. Much of the Confederate heartland was destroyed, and could no longer provide desperately needed supplies to its armies. In spring , Grant launched a war of attrition and pursued Lee to the final, Appomattox campaign which resulted in Lee surrendering in April The American Civil War was the world's earliest industrial war.

Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War I. It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of about , soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.

According to historian Allan Nevins , the Civil War had a major long-term impact on the United States in terms of developing its leadership potential and metaphorically moving the country beyond the adolescent stage:. The fighting and its attendant demands upon industry, finance, medicine, and law also helped train a host of leaders who during the next 35 years, to , made their influence powerfully felt on most of the social, economic, and cultural fronts.

It broke down barriers of parochialism; it ended distrust of large-scale effort; it hardened and matured the whole people emotionally. The adolescent land of the s…rose under the blows of battle to adult estate. The nation of the post-Appomattox generation, though sadly hurt especially in the South by war losses, and deeply scarred psychologically especially in the North by war hatreds and greeds, had at last the power, resolution, and self-trust of manhood.

In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U. It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally and actually free. The owners were never compensated. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army.

By June , the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and liberated all of the designated slaves. The severe dislocations of war and Reconstruction had a large negative impact on the black population, with a large amount of sickness and death.

Reconstruction lasted from Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, , to the Compromise of The major issues faced by Lincoln were the status of the ex-slaves "Freedmen" , the loyalty and civil rights of ex-rebels, the status of the 11 ex-Confederate states, the powers of the federal government needed to prevent a future civil war, and the question of whether Congress or the President would make the major decisions.

The severe threats of starvation and displacement of the unemployed Freedmen were met by the first major federal relief agency, the Freedmen's Bureau , operated by the Army. Three " Reconstruction Amendments " were passed to expand civil rights for black Americans: the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed equal rights for all and citizenship for blacks; the Fifteenth Amendment prevented race from being used to disenfranchise men.

Ex-Confederates remained in control of most Southern states for over two years, but changed when the Radical Republicans gained control of Congress in the elections. President Andrew Johnson , who sought easy terms for reunions with ex-rebels, was virtually powerless in the face of the Radical Republican Congress; he was impeached, but the Senate's attempt to remove him from office failed by one vote.

Congress enfranchised black men and temporarily stripped many ex-Confederate leaders of the right to hold office. New Republican governments came to power based on a coalition of Freedmen made up of Carpetbaggers new arrivals from the North , and Scalawags native white Southerners.

They were backed by the U. Opponents said they were corrupt and violated the rights of whites. State by state, the New Republicans lost power to a conservative-Democratic coalition, which gained control of the entire South by Paramilitary groups, such as the White League and Red Shirts emerged about that worked openly to use intimidation and violence to suppress black voting to regain white political power in states across the South during the s.

One historian described them as the military arm of the Democratic Party. Reconstruction ended after the disputed election. The Compromise of gave Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes the White House in exchange for removing all remaining federal troops in the South.

The federal government withdrew its troops from the South, and Southern Democrats took control of every Southern state. From to , southern states effectively disfranchised most black voters and many poor whites by making voter registration more difficult through poll taxes , literacy tests , and other arbitrary devices. They passed segregation laws and imposed second-class status on blacks in a system known as Jim Crow that lasted until the Civil rights movement.

The latter half of the nineteenth century was marked by the rapid development and settlement of the far West, first by wagon trains and riverboats and then aided by the completion of the transcontinental railroad. Large numbers of European immigrants especially from Germany and Scandinavia took up low-cost or free farms in the Prairie States. Mining for silver and copper opened up the Mountain West. The United States Army fought frequent small-scale wars with Native Americans as settlers encroached on their traditional lands.

Gradually the U. According to the U. Bureau of the Census , from to The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19, white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30, Indians.

The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given… Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate. The "Gilded Age" was a term that Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late 19th century with a dramatic expansion of American wealth and prosperity, underscored by the mass corruption in the government. Reforms of the Age included the Civil Service Act , which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs.

Other important legislation included the Interstate Commerce Act , which ended railroads' discrimination against small shippers, and the Sherman Antitrust Act , which outlawed monopolies in business. Twain believed that this age was corrupted by such elements as land speculators, scandalous politics, and unethical business practices.

Since the days of Charles A. Beard and Matthew Josephson , some historians have argued that the United States was effectively plutocratic for at least part of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller began to amass vast fortunes, many U. By American industrial production and per capita income exceeded those of all other countries. In response to heavy debts and decreasing farm prices, wheat and cotton farmers joined the Populist Party.

From to , peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to the United States. Most were unskilled workers who quickly found jobs in mines, mills, and factories.

Many immigrants were craftsmen especially from Britain and Germany bringing human skills, and others were farmers especially from Germany and Scandinavia who purchased inexpensive land on the Prairies from railroads who sent agents to Europe. Poverty, growing inequality and dangerous working conditions, along with socialist and anarchist ideas diffusing from European immigrants, led to the rise of the labor movement , which often included violent strikes.

Skilled workers banded together to control their crafts and raise wages by forming labor unions in industrial areas of the Northeast. Before the s few factory workers joined the unions in the labor movement. Samuel Gompers led the American Federation of Labor — , coordinating multiple unions. Industrial growth was rapid, led by John D. Rockefeller in oil and Andrew Carnegie in steel; both became leaders of philanthropy Gospel of Wealth , giving away their fortunes to create the modern system of hospitals, universities, libraries, and foundations.

The Panic of broke out and was a severe nationwide depression impacting farmers, workers, and businessmen who saw prices, wages, and profits fall. The resultant political reaction fell on the Democratic Party, whose leader President Grover Cleveland shouldered much of the blame. Labor unrest involved numerous strikes, most notably the violent Pullman Strike of , which was shut down by federal troops under Cleveland's orders.

The Populist Party gained strength among cotton and wheat farmers, as well as coal miners, but was overtaken by the even more popular Free silver movement, which demanded using silver to enlarge the money supply, leading to inflation that the silverites promised would end the depression. The financial, railroad, and business communities fought back hard, arguing that only the gold standard would save the economy. In the most intense election in U. Bryan swept the South and West, but McKinley ran up landslides among the middle class, industrial workers, cities, and among upscale farmers in the Midwest.

Prosperity returned under McKinley, the gold standard was enacted, and the tariff was raised. By the U. Apart from two short recessions in and the overall economy remained prosperous and growing until Republicans, citing McKinley's policies, took the credit. The United States emerged as a world economic and military power after The main episode was the Spanish—American War , which began when Spain refused American demands to reform its oppressive policies in Cuba.

Cuba became an independent country, under close American tutelage. Although the war itself was widely popular, the peace terms proved controversial.

William Jennings Bryan led his Democratic Party in opposition to control of the Philippines, which he denounced as imperialism unbecoming to American democracy. McKinley easily defeated Bryan in a rematch in the presidential election. After defeating an insurrection by Filipino nationalists , the United States achieved little in the Philippines except in education, and it did something in the way of public health.

It also built roads, bridges, and wells, but infrastructural development lost much of its early vigor with the failure of the railroads. The canal opened in and increased trade with Japan and the rest of the Far East.

A key innovation was the Open Door Policy , whereby the imperial powers were given equal access to Chinese business, with not one of them allowed to take control of China. Dissatisfaction on the part of the growing middle class with the corruption and inefficiency of politics as usual, and the failure to deal with increasingly important urban and industrial problems, led to the dynamic Progressive Movement starting in the s.

In every major city and state, and at the federal level as well, and in education, medicine, and industry, the progressives called for the modernization and reform of decrepit institutions, the elimination of corruption in politics, and the introduction of efficiency as a criterion for change.

Women became especially involved in demands for female suffrage, prohibition, and better schools. Their most prominent leader was Jane Addams of Chicago, who created settlement houses. Progressives implemented antitrust laws and regulated such industries of meat-packing, drugs, and railroads. Four new constitutional amendments — the Sixteenth through Nineteenth — resulted from progressive activism, bringing the federal income tax, direct election of Senators, prohibition, and female suffrage.

The period also saw a major transformation of the banking system with the creation of the Federal Reserve System in [] and the arrival of cooperative banking in the US with the founding of the first credit union in Presidential candidate Gerrit Smith argued for and established women's suffrage as a party plank. One month later, his cousin Elizabeth Cady Stanton joined with Lucretia Mott and other women to organize the Seneca Falls Convention , featuring the Declaration of Sentiments demanding equal rights for women, and the right to vote.

Many of these activists became politically aware during the abolitionist movement. The women's rights campaign during " first-wave feminism " was led by Stanton, Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony , among many others. The movement reorganized after the Civil War, gaining experienced campaigners, many of whom had worked for prohibition in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. By the end of the 19th century a few western states had granted women full voting rights, [] though women had made significant legal victories, gaining rights in areas such as property and child custody.

Around the feminist movement began to reawaken, putting an emphasis on its demands for equality and arguing that the corruption of American politics demanded purification by women. Suffragists were arrested during their " Silent Sentinels " pickets at the White House, the first time such a tactic was used, and were taken as political prisoners.

The old anti-suffragist argument that only men could fight in a war, and therefore only men deserve the right to vote, was refuted by the enthusiastic participation of tens of thousands of American women on the home front in World War I.

Across the world, industrialized countries with similar experiences gave women the right to vote. Furthermore, most of the states in the western U. The main resistance came from the south, where white leaders were worried about the threat of black women voting. Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment in , and women could vote in Politicians responded to the new electorate by emphasizing issues of special interest to women, especially prohibition, child health, and world peace.

Meanwhile, Protestants mobilized women to support Prohibition and vote for Republican Herbert Hoover. Women's suffragists parade in New York City in , carrying placards with signatures of more than a million women. Women surrounded by posters in English and Yiddish supporting Franklin D.

Roosevelt , Herbert H. Lehman , and the American Labor Party teach other women how to vote, As World War I raged in Europe from , President Woodrow Wilson took full control of foreign policy, declaring neutrality but warning Germany that resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare against American ships supplying goods to Allied nations would mean war.

Germany decided to take the risk and try to win by cutting off supplies to Britain through the sinking of ships such as the RMS Lusitania. American money, food, and munitions arrived in Europe quickly, but troops had to be drafted and trained. Pershing 's American Expeditionary Forces arrived at the rate of 10, a day, while Germany was unable to replace its losses.

The political prisoners were later released by U. President Warren G. The result was Allied victory in November President Wilson demanded Germany depose the Kaiser and accept his terms in the famed Fourteen Points speech.

Wilson dominated the Paris Peace Conference but Germany was treated harshly by the Allies in the Treaty of Versailles as Wilson put all his hopes in the new League of Nations. Wilson refused to compromise with Senate Republicans over the issue of Congressional power to declare war, and the Senate rejected the Treaty and the League. In the s the U.

While public health facilities grew rapidly in the Progressive Era, and hospitals and medical schools were modernized, [] the country in and lost approximately , lives to the Spanish flu pandemic. In , the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol were prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment , Prohibition. The result was that in cities illegal alcohol became a big business, largely controlled by racketeers. The second Ku Klux Klan grew rapidly in —, then collapsed.

Immigration laws were passed to strictly limit the number of new entries. The s were called the Roaring Twenties due to the great economic prosperity during this period.

Jazz became popular among the younger generation, and thus the decade was also called the Jazz Age. The Great Depression — and the New Deal — were decisive moments in American political, economic, and social history that reshaped the nation. During the s, the nation enjoyed widespread prosperity, albeit with a weakness in agriculture.

A financial bubble was fueled by an inflated stock market , which later led to the Stock Market Crash on October 29, In , Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised "a New Deal for the American people", coining the enduring label for his domestic policies. The result was a series of permanent reform programs including Relief for the unemployed, assistance for the elderly, jobs for young men, social security, unemployment insurance, public housing, bankruptcy insurance, farm subsidies, and regulation of financial securities.

State governments added new programs as well and introduced the sales tax to pay for them. Ideologically the revolution established modern liberalism in the United States and kept the Democrats in power in Washington almost continuously for three decades thanks to the New Deal coalition of ethnic whites, blacks, blue-collar workers, labor unions, and white Southerners. It provided relief to the long-term unemployed through numerous programs, such as the Works Progress Administration WPA and for young men, the Civilian Conservation Corps.

Large scale spending projects designed to provide private sector construction jobs and rebuild the infrastructure were under the purview of the Public Works Administration. The Second New Deal was a turn to the left in —, building up labor unions through the Wagner Act.

Unions became a powerful element of the merging New Deal coalition , which won reelection for Roosevelt in , , and by mobilizing union members, blue-collar workers, relief recipients, big city machines, ethnic, and religious groups especially Catholics and Jews and the white South, along with blacks in the North where they could vote.

Roosevelt seriously weakened his second term by a failed effort to pack the Supreme Court, which had been a center of conservative resistance to his programs. Most of the relief programs were dropped after in the s when the conservatives regained power in Congress through the Conservative coalition.

Of special importance is the Social Security program , begun in The economy basically recovered by , but had a sharp, short recession in —; long-term unemployment, however, remained a problem until it was solved by wartime spending. In an effort to denounce past U. To create a friendly relationship between the United States and Central as well as South American countries, Roosevelt sought to stray from asserting military force in the region.

As a result of the Great Depression, , to , Mexicans and Mexican Americans were voluntarily repatriated or formally deported to Mexico during the s, in what is known as the Mexican Repatriation. In the Depression years, the United States remained focused on domestic concerns while democracy declined across the world and many countries fell under the control of dictators. Imperial Japan asserted dominance in East Asia and in the Pacific.

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy militarized and threatened conquests, while Britain and France attempted appeasement to avert another war in Europe. At first, Roosevelt positioned the U. The main contributions of the U. Much of the focus the U. Tens of millions of workers moved from low-productivity occupations to high-efficiency jobs, improving productivity through better technology and management.

Students, retired people, housewives, and the unemployed moved into the active labor force. Economic mobilization was managed by the War Production Board and a wartime production boom led to full employment, wiping out this vestige of the Great Depression.

Labor shortages encouraged industry to look for new sources of workers, finding new roles for women and Blacks. Most durable goods became unavailable, and meat, clothing, and gasoline were tightly rationed. In industrial areas housing was in short supply as people doubled up and lived in cramped quarters.

Prices and wages were controlled, and Americans saved a high portion of their incomes, which led to renewed growth after the war instead of a return to depression. The Allies — the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union and other countries — saw Germany as the main threat and gave the highest priority to Europe. American ground forces assisted in the North African campaign that eventually concluded with the collapse of Mussolini's fascist government in , as Italy switched to the Allied side.

War fervor also inspired anti-Japanese sentiment , leading to internment of Japanese Americans. Two-thirds of those interned were American citizens and half of them were children. Military research and development also increase, leading to the Manhattan Project , a secret effort to harness nuclear fission to produce atomic bombs. The Allies pushed the Germans out of France but the western front stopped short, leaving Berlin to the Soviets as the Nazi regime formally capitulated in May , ending the war in Europe.

The United States then established airfields for bombing runs against mainland Japan from the Mariana Islands , achieving hard-fought victories at Iwo Jima and Okinawa in Participation in postwar foreign affairs marked the end of predominant American isolationism. The threat of nuclear weapons inspired both optimism and fear.

Nuclear weapons have not been used since the war ended, and a "long peace" began between the global powers in era of competition that came to be known as the Cold War. The Truman Doctrine characterized this reality on May 22, Despite the absence of a global war during this period, there were, however, regional wars in Korea and Vietnam.

Senate on a bipartisan vote approved U. The primary American goal of — was to rescue Europe from the devastation of World War II and to contain the expansion of Communism, represented by the Soviet Union. The Truman Doctrine of provided military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to counteract the threat of Communist expansion in the Balkans.

In , the United States replaced piecemeal financial aid programs with a comprehensive Marshall Plan , which pumped money into the economy of Western Europe, and removed trade barriers, while modernizing the managerial practices of businesses and governments. Soviet head of state Joseph Stalin prevented his satellite states from participating, and from that point on, Eastern Europe, with inefficient centralized economies, fell further and further behind Western Europe in terms of economic development and prosperity.

In , the United States, rejecting the long-standing policy of no military alliances in peacetime, formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO alliance, which continues into the 21st century. In August the Soviets tested their first nuclear weapon, thereby escalating the risk of warfare. The threat of mutually assured destruction however, prevented both powers from nuclear war, and resulted in proxy wars, especially in Korea and Vietnam, in which the two sides did not directly confront each other.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower, elected in a landslide as the first Republican president since , had a lasting impact on American life and politics.

He cut military spending by reliance on very high technology, such as nuclear weapons carried by long-range bombers and intercontinental missiles. He gave strong support to the NATO alliance and built other alliances along similar lines, but they never were especially effective. After Stalin died in , Eisenhower worked to obtain friendlier relationships with the Soviet Union. At home, he ended McCarthyism , expanded the Social Security program and presided over a decade of bipartisan comity.

He promoted civil rights cautiously, and sent in the Army when trouble threatened over racial integration in Little Rock, Arkansas. The unexpected leapfrogging of American technology by the Soviets in with Sputnik , the first Earth satellite, began the Space Race , won in by the Americans as Apollo 11 landed astronauts on the Moon.

The angst about the weaknesses of American education led to large-scale federal support for science education and research. In , John F. President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, , leaving the nation in profound shock. President Lyndon B. Johnson secured congressional passage of his Great Society programs in the mids. Gradually, liberal intellectuals crafted a new vision for achieving economic and social justice.

The liberalism of the early s contained no hint of radicalism, little disposition to revive new deal era crusades against concentrated economic power, and no intention to redistribute wealth or restructure existing institutions. Internationally it was strongly anti-Communist. It aimed to defend the free world, to encourage economic growth at home, and to ensure that the resulting plenty was fairly distributed.

Their agenda-much influenced by Keynesian economic theory-envisioned massive public expenditure that would speed economic growth, thus providing the public resources to fund larger welfare, housing, health, and educational programs. Johnson was rewarded with an electoral landslide in against conservative Barry Goldwater , which broke the decades-long control of Congress by the Conservative coalition. However, the Republicans bounced back in and elected Richard Nixon in Nixon largely continued the New Deal and Great Society programs he inherited; conservative reaction would come with the election of Ronald Reagan in Starting in the late s, institutionalized racism across the United States , but especially in the South , was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights Movement.

For years African Americans would struggle with violence against them but would achieve great steps toward equality with Supreme Court decisions, including Brown v. Board of Education and Loving v. Martin Luther King Jr. Following his death others led the movement, most notably King's widow, Coretta Scott King , who was also active, like her husband, in the Opposition to the Vietnam War , and in the Women's Liberation Movement.

There were riots in American cities in the first nine months of The decade would ultimately bring about positive strides toward integration, especially in government service, sports, and entertainment. Native Americans turned to the federal courts to fight for their land rights.

They held protests highlighting the federal government's failure to honor treaties. He led a five-year-long strike by grape pickers. A new consciousness of the inequality of American women began sweeping the nation, starting with the publication of Betty Friedan 's best-seller, The Feminine Mystique , which explained how many housewives felt trapped and unfulfilled, assaulted American culture for its creation of the notion that women could only find fulfillment through their roles as wives, mothers, and keepers of the home, and argued that women were just as able as men to do every type of job.

Protests began, and the new women's liberation movement grew in size and power, gained much media attention, and, by , had replaced the Civil Rights Movement as the U.

S's main social revolution. Marches, parades, rallies, boycotts, and pickets brought out thousands, sometimes millions. There were striking gains for women in medicine, law, and business, while only a few were elected to office.

The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution, passed by Congress in was defeated by a conservative coalition mobilized by Phyllis Schlafly. They argued that it degraded the position of the housewife and made young women susceptible to the military draft. However, many federal laws i. The controversial issue of abortion, deemed by the Supreme Court as a fundamental right in Roe v. Wade , is still a point of debate today. Amid the Cold War, the United States entered the Vietnam War , whose growing unpopularity fed already existing social movements, including those among women, minorities, and young people.

Johnson 's Great Society social programs and numerous rulings by the Warren Court added to the wide range of social reform during the s and s. Feminism and the environmental movement became political forces, and progress continued toward civil rights for all Americans. The Counterculture Revolution swept through the nation and much of the western world in the late sixties and early seventies, further dividing Americans in a "culture war" but also bringing forth more liberated social views.

Johnson was succeeded in by Republican Richard Nixon , who attempted to gradually turn the war over to the South Vietnamese forces. He negotiated the peace treaty in which secured the release of POWs and led to the withdrawal of U. The war had cost the lives of 58, American troops. The Watergate scandal , involving Nixon's cover-up of his operatives' break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex destroyed his political base, sent many aides to prison, and forced Nixon's resignation on August 9, He was succeeded by Vice President Gerald Ford.

Communist victories in neighboring Cambodia and Laos occurred in the same year, with the fall of Cambodia's capital, Phnom Penh on April 17 and the taking of Laos's capital, Vientiane on December 2. The OPEC oil embargo marked a long-term economic transition since, for the first time, energy prices skyrocketed, and American factories faced serious competition from foreign automobiles, clothing, electronics, and consumer goods.

By the late s, the economy suffered an energy crisis , slow economic growth, high unemployment, and very high inflation coupled with high-interest rates the term stagflation was coined. Since economists agreed on the wisdom of deregulation , many of the New Deal era regulations were ended, such as in transportation, banking, and telecommunications. Jimmy Carter , running as someone who was not a part of the Washington political establishment, was elected president in In , Iranian students stormed the U.

With the hostage crisis and continuing stagflation, Carter lost the election to the Republican Ronald Reagan. Ronald Reagan produced a major political realignment with his and landslide elections. Reagan ordered a buildup of the U. The Soviets reacted harshly because they thought it violated the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and would upset the balance of power by giving the U. However, by the late s he decided the system would never work and should not be used to block disarmament deals with the U.

Historians argue how great an impact the SDI threat had on the Soviets — whether it was enough to force Gorbachev to initiate radical reforms, or whether the deterioration of the Soviet economy alone forced the reforms.

There is agreement that the Soviets realized they were well behind the Americans in military technology, that to try to catch up would be very expensive, and that the military expenses were already a very heavy burden slowing down their economy. The Invasion of Grenada and bombing of Libya were popular in the U. Reagan met four times with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev , who ascended to power as General Secretary of the Communist Party in , and their summit conferences led to the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.

Gorbachev tried to save Communism in the Soviet Union first by ending the expensive nuclear arms race with America, [] then by shedding the East European empire in S—Soviet Cold War. The United States emerged as the world's sole remaining superpower and continued to intervene in international affairs during the s, including the Gulf War against Iraq. Following his election in , President Bill Clinton oversaw one of the longest periods of economic expansion and unprecedented gains in securities values.

President Clinton worked with the Republican Congress to pass the first balanced federal budget in 30 years. In , Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives on charges of lying under oath about perjury regarding a sexual relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. He was acquitted by the Senate. The failure of impeachment and the Democratic gains in the election forced House Speaker Newt Gingrich , a Republican, to resign from Congress.

The Republican Party expanded its base throughout the South after excepting , largely due to its strength among socially conservative white Evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics , added to its traditional strength in the business community and suburbs. As white Democrats in the South lost dominance of the Democratic Party in the s, the region took on the two-party apparatus which characterized most states. The Republican Party's central leader by was Ronald Reagan , whose conservative policies called for reduced government spending and regulation, lower taxes, and a strong anti-Soviet foreign policy.

His iconic status in the party persists into the 21st century, as practically all Republican Party leaders acknowledge his stature. Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. The close presidential election in between Governor George W.

Bush and Al Gore helped lay the seeds for political polarization to come. The vote in the decisive states of New Mexico and Florida was extremely close and produced a dramatic dispute over the counting of votes. While they were not able to land the plane safely, they were able to re-take control of the aircraft and crash it into an empty field in Pennsylvania, killing all 44 people including the four terrorists on board, thereby saving whatever target the terrorists were aiming for.

Within two hours, both Twin Towers of the World Trade Center completely collapsed causing massive damage to the surrounding area and blanketing Lower Manhattan in toxic dust clouds. All in all, a total of 2, victims perished in the attacks. In response, President George W. Bush on September 20 announced a "war on terror".

The federal government established new domestic efforts to prevent future attacks. Department of Homeland Security was created to lead and coordinate federal counter-terrorism activities. In , from March 19 to May 1, the United States launched an invasion of Iraq , which led to the collapse of the Iraq government and the eventual capture of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein , with whom the U. The reasons for the invasion cited by the Bush administration included the spreading of democracy, the elimination of weapons of mass destruction [] a key demand of the UN as well, though later investigations found parts of the intelligence reports to be inaccurate , [] and the liberation of the Iraqi people.

Despite some initial successes early in the invasion, the continued Iraq War fueled international protests and gradually saw domestic support decline as many people began to question whether or not the invasion was worth the cost. While the death toll decreased, the political stability of Iraq remained in doubt. In , the unpopularity of President Bush and the Iraq war, along with the financial crisis , led to the election of Barack Obama , the first multiracial [] president, with African-American ancestry.

However, 50, American soldiers and military personnel were kept in Iraq to assist Iraqi forces, help protect withdrawing forces, and work on counter-terrorism until December 15, , when the war was declared formally over and the last troops left the country. In , on his second day in office, Obama issued an executive order banning the use of torture , [] [] a prohibition codified into law in In May , after nearly a decade in hiding, the founder and leader of Al Qaeda, Osama bin Laden , was killed in Pakistan in a raid conducted by U.

While Al Qaeda was near collapse in Afghanistan, affiliated organizations continued to operate in Yemen and other remote areas as the CIA used drones to hunt down and remove its leadership. The Boston Marathon bombing was a bombing incident, followed by subsequent related shootings, that occurred when two pressure cooker bombs exploded during the Boston Marathon on April 15, The bombs exploded near the marathon's finish line, killing 3 people and injuring an estimated others.

These events lead to a major military offensive by the United States and its allies in the region. On December 28, , Obama officially ended the combat mission in Afghanistan and promised a withdrawal of all remaining U.

The financial crisis threatened the stability of the entire economy in September when Lehman Brothers failed and other giant banks were in grave danger. Obama, like Bush, took steps to rescue the auto industry and prevent future economic meltdowns. These included a bailout of General Motors and Chrysler , putting ownership temporarily in the hands of the government, and the " cash for clunkers " program which temporarily boosted new car sales. The recession officially ended in June , and the economy slowly began to expand once again.

Following Obama's re-election, Congressional gridlock continued as Congressional Republicans' call for the repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act along with other various demands, resulted in the first government shutdown since the Clinton administration and almost led to the first default on U.

As a result of growing public frustration with both parties in Congress since the beginning of the decade, Congressional approval ratings fell to record lows.

Recent events also include the rise of new political movements, such as the conservative Tea Party movement and the liberal Occupy movement. The debate over the issue of rights for the LGBT community , including same-sex marriage , began to shift in favor of same-sex couples.

Political debate has continued over tax reform , immigration reform , income inequality , and U. The late s were marked by widespread social upheaval and change in the United States. The MeToo movement gained popularity, exposing alleged sexual harassment and abuse in the workplace. Following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in , gun control advocates organized the March for Our Lives , where millions of students across the country walked out of school to protest gun violence.

In , following a contentious election, Republican Donald Trump was elected president. This, along with questions about potential collusion between the Trump campaign and Russian officials, led to investigations by the FBI and Congress. During Trump's presidency, he espoused an " America First " ideology, placing restrictions on asylum seekers and imposing a widely controversial ban on immigration from seven Muslim-majority countries. Many of his executive orders and other actions were challenged in court.

After public outcry, Trump rescinded this policy. In , a whistleblower complaint alleged that Trump had withheld foreign aid from Ukraine under the demand that they investigate the business dealings of the son of Trump's political opponent. By February 2, the Trump administration restricted travel to and from China. Democrat Joe Biden defeated Trump in the presidential election , the first defeat of an incumbent president since The biggest mass vaccination campaign in U.

Following Biden's election, the date for US troops to withdraw from Afghanistan was moved back from April to August 31, Following a massive airlift of over , people, the US military mission formally ended on August 30, On June 24, , the Supreme Court , in a landmark ruling, determined that abortion is not a protected right under the Constitution. Jackson Women's Health Organization overturned Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey and sparked protests outside of the Supreme Court building and across the country.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 13 January Historical account of modern day USA. For the history of the continents, see History of the Americas.

Timeline and periods. By group. See also. Historiography List of years in the United States. See also: Native Americans in the United States. Main article: Pre-Columbian North America. Main articles: Mound Builders and Ancestral Puebloans. Main articles: Ancient Hawaii and Hawaiian Kingdom. Main articles: History of Puerto Rico and Taino. Main article: Norse colonization of North America. Main article: Colonial history of the United States. Great Britain. Main article: European colonization of the Americas.

Main article: Spanish colonization of the Americas. Main article: Dutch colonization of the Americas. Main article: New Sweden. Further information: British colonization of the Americas. Main articles: Jamestown, Virginia and Colony of Virginia. Main article: Middle Colonies. Main article: Southern Colonies.

Main article: History of religion in the United States. Main article: Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies. Further information: No taxation without representation. See also: Commemoration of the American Revolution. Main article: Military career of George Washington. Main article: Loyalist American Revolution. Main article: United States Declaration of Independence. Main articles: Confederation period and History of the United States — Main article: Presidency of George Washington.

Main article: First Party System. Main article: Slavery in the United States. Main article: War of Main article: Second Great Awakening.

Main article: Era of Good Feelings. Main article: Indian removal. Main article: American frontier. Union states. Union territories not permitting slavery. Border Union states, permitting slavery. Confederate states. Union territories permitting slavery claimed by Confederacy.

Main article: Compromise of Main article: Plantation complexes in the Southern United States. Main article: American Civil War. Main article: Reconstruction era. See also: History of the United States — Main article: Radical Republicans. Main article: History of rail transportation in the United States.

Main article: American Indian Wars. Main article: Gilded Age. Main article: Labor history of the United States. Further information: American imperialism and Spanish—American War. Main article: Progressive Era. Further information: Women's suffrage in the United States.

Main article: History of the United States — See also: Good Neighbor policy. Main article: Civil rights movement. Further information: Second-wave feminism. Main articles: Cold War — and Counterculture of the s. Main article: Great Recession in the United States. Main article: History of the United States —present. For [that] crops [that are] not sown, abound there, we learn not from fanciful opinion but from the true account of the Danes.

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Retrieved June 27, The William and Mary Quarterly. How the Canyon Became Grand. New York City: Penguin Books. The First Settlers". Archived from the original on October 1, Retrieved July 18, Digital History.

Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved February 15, Archived from the original on October 22, Seedtime of the Republic: the origin of the American tradition of political liberty. Random House Digital, Inc. Archived from the original on October 16, The Birth of the Republic, —89 4th ed.

The Boston Tea Party. Applewood Books. The Journal of Military History. The American Story 3rd ed. Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved June 7, The American Revolution: A History.

James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, University Press of Kansas. The Review of Politics. Archiving Early America. Archived from the original on May 27, John Adams. American Slavery, — New York: Hill and Wang. Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved April 11, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. Geoffrey, eds. Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America.

Expansionists of The War of The Encyclopedia of the War of National Park Service ". Archived from the original on August 18, Retrieved August 18, Indiana Magazine of History. Archived from the original on March 25, A Short history of the United States 1st ed. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. A Religious History of the American People. Harper Torchbooks.

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